||Overall Rank: 64
Percentage of adults with a serious mental illness receiving supported employment, the key elements of which include individualized job development, rapid placement emphasizing competitive employment, ongoing job support, and integration of vocational and mental health services.
The restoration of a person by therapeutic measures and re-education to participation in the activities of a normal life within the limitations of the person’s disorder or disability.
Additional Domain(s) :
Patients with Chronic Conditions
Evidence-based services that promote long-term recovery should be important components of any system that serves people with serious mental illnesses. The workgroup recognizes that not all states offer Supported Employment programs, and that not all persons with serious mental illnesses necessarily need such services, however research has demonstrated the effectiveness of these services for many consumers in obtaining and maintaining competitive employment. Supported employment was originally developed by Paul Wehman and colleagues (Wehman, 1986; Wehman & Moon, 1988) to help place and support persons with developmental disorders in competitive jobs in integrated settings. Since about the mid-1980s, SE has been adapted and used for persons with mental illness, integrating ideas from Wehmans original model, ACT, the job coach model and the clubhouse model (Bond, Drake, Mueser, & Becker, 1997). During the past decade, a substantial body of research has emerged showing the clear superiority of SE in obtaining competitive work compared both to no vocational programming and to other forms of vocational programming (e.g., sheltered work, transitional employment). In a recent review,
Bond and colleagues (1997) identified 7 pre-post studies, and 8 controlled studies (of which 6 were randomized) of SE and concluded that across studies, 58% of consumers in SE programs were employed vs. 21% for control subjects. SE consumers also tended to be employed longer and to earn more, and, contrary to fears from detractors, did not report either increased stress or increased use of the hospital.
Lutterman T, Ganju V, Schacht L, Shaw R, Monihan K, et.al. Sixteen State Study on Mental Health Performance Measures. DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 03-3835. Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2003. Retrieved on Aug 3, 2006 from: http://www.mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/funding/pilotstudy/pilotstudy.asp
Level of Evidence
I: Consistently higher quality studies specifically focused on primary mental health care.
- * Very important, but this is beyond control of primary care.
- There is a serious need to recognize a person's limitations, many relapse when too much is expected of them.
Variation in Results
Special Group Rank